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Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Viet Nam

75,030,000 (1995). 54 official ethnic communities. 56,849,370 or 94% speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages, 2,255,450 or 3.7% speakers of Daic languages, 679,000 or 1.1% speakers of Miao-Yao languages, 492,000 or 0.8% speakers of Austronesian languages, 40,000 speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages (1991 J. Matisoff). Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam. Literacy rate 78% to 88%. Information mainly from SIL 1982, Wurm and Hattori 1981, Vietnamese Linguistic Institute 1991. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Buddhist, secular, Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Blind population 200,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of languages listed for Viet Nam is 87. Of those, 86 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

AKHA (KAW, EKAW, KO, AKA, IKAW, AK'A, AHKA, KHAKO, KHA KO, KHAO IKOR, AINI, YANI) [AKA] 360,000 or more in all countries; 25,000 in Thailand (1986); 130,000 in China (1990); 200,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS); 5,000 in Laos. Binh Tri Thien, east central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, northeast of Phuc Trach. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1968-1987. Bible portions 1939-1991.

AREM (A-REM) [AEM] 1,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Binh Tri Thien, east central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, northeast of Phuc Trach. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Cht is an official ethnic community in Viet Nam, including Sch, My, Ruc, and Arem. Other dialects or ethnic names: Ma Ling, Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Ch-cu, Tac-cui, U-mo, X L Vng, Nh Cht. Survey needed.

BAHNAR (BANA) [BDQ] 85,000 (1973 SIL). Southeastern Gia Lai-Cong Tum, Nghia Binh, Phu Khanh provinces, central highlands. Also in USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Dialects: TOLO, GOLAR, ALAKONG (A-LA CONG), JOLONG (GIO-LANG, Y-LANG), BAHNAR BONOM (BOMAM), KONTUM, KREM. Other dialects or ethnic names: Roh, Kpang Cong. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Closest to Alak 1, Tampuan, and Lamam. 50% to 75% literate. Mountain slope. NT 1977. Bible portions 1952-1964.

BOUYEI (BO-Y, BO-I, BUYI, PU-I, PUYI, PUI, CHANG CH, TRONG GIA, TU D, TU DN) [PCC] 1,300 in Viet Nam (1984 official figure); 2,000,000 in China (1990). Hong Lien Son and H Tuyen provinces. Daic, Tai, Northern. An official nationality in Viet Nam and China. Close to Nhang. Polytheist, some Daoist. Work in progress.

BRAO (BRAU, BRAOU, PROUE, BROU, LOVE, LAVE, LAVEH) [BRB] 18,000 including Laos and Cambodia; 5,000 in Cambodia (1988 govt. figure); 90 in USA; 5 in France. Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, Cambodia-Laos border area. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Work in progress.

BRU, EASTERN (BR, BROU, KALO, CALO, GALLER, VAN KIEU, QUANG TRI BRU) [BRU] 50,000 in Viet Nam (199; 64,000 in Laos (1993); 114,000 in all countries. Bnh Tri Thien Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Also classified as North Katuic. The name 'Bru' means 'minority people'. So of Laos call themselves 'Bru'. Partially intelligible with Western Bru of Thailand. Related to Khua, Mangkong, and Leun. 15% to 25% literate. NT 1981. Bible portions 1968.

BUNU, BAHENG (PA HNG, PAHENG, BAHENG, BAHENGMAI, P HUNG, P THEN, TNG, MO LI, MN PA SENG, PATENG, NA-E, NA'E, MIAO HOA, FLOWERY MIAO) [PHA] (30,000 in China; 1990). Tuyn Quang and H Giang provinces. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Culturally Yao (Mien). Na-e (Pateng) in Viet Nam may be a separate language from Pa Hng (Baheng), either Hmongic, related to Baheng, or a separate branch within Hmong-Mien.

CHAM, EASTERN (TJAM, CHIEM, CHIEM THNH) [CJM] 35,000 in Viet Nam (1990 govt. figure); 10 or more in San Diego, California, USA. 55,000 all Cham in Viet Nam (1990 govt. figure). Thuan Hai, An Giang, Thnh ph H Ch Minh, Nghia Bnh, and Ph Khnh provinces. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Remnants of a once powerful kingdom. 60% literate. Austro-Asiatic influences. Agriculturalists. Muslim. Bible portions 1973.

CHAM, WESTERN (CAMBODIAN CHAM, TJAM, CHAM, NEW CHAM, CHIEM) [CJA] 20,000 in Viet Nam (1990 govt. figure); 195,000 in Cambodia (1988 govt. figure); 1,800 to 10,000 in Malaysia; 4,000 in Thailand; 3,000 or more in USA; 1,000 in France; 100 in Saudi Arabia; 250,000 or more in all countries. Near Chau Doc and Tay Ninh and 4,000 in Saigon Cholon. Also in Yemen, Libya, Indonesia, Australia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru. The language differs somewhat from Eastern Cham of central Viet Nam. Muslim. Work in progress.

CHINESE, YUE (CHINESE NUNG, NUNG, LOWLAND NUNG, HOA, HAN, TRIU CHAU, PHC KIN, LIEM CHAU, SANG PHANG, SUNG PHNG, QUANG DONG, HAI NAM, HA XA PHANG, MINH HUONG, TAI NUNG) [YUH] 500,000 in Viet Nam (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick); 66,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). About 2/3 have left since 1975. Thnh Ph H Ch Minh, H Noi, Hau Giang, Hai Phng, Cuu Long provinces. Also in China, USA, France, Germany, Switzerland, possibly Laos. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Use Chinese calligraphy. Renowned fighters. Came from Canton, China as railroad workers and soldiers several decades ago. They are called 'Tai Nung' in Viet Nam, probably because they live with a majority of Tai Nung peoples and adopted the Tai leader as theirs. They are not the same as the Nung in the Tai family or the Tibeto-Burman Nung (Nu) of China and Myanmar. Bible 1894-1981. NT 1877, in press (1996). Bible portions 1862-1903.

CHRAU (CHAURO, CHORO, RO, TAMUN) [CHR] 15,000 (199. Dng Nai Province. The Tamun group live in Tayninh and Binhlong provinces. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau. Dialects: JRO, DOR (DORO), PRANG, MRO, VOQTWAQ, VAJIENG, CHALAH, CHALUN, TAMUN. The name Chrau means 'mountain dweller'. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1982. Bible portions 1966-1985.

CHRU (CHURU, CHORU, CHU RU, CHU, CRU, KRU, CHRAU HMA, CADOE LOANG, SEYU) [CJE] 15,000 to 20,000 (1973 SIL); 1 in USA; 1 in France. Lam Dong and Thuan Hai provinces. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru. Dialects: RAI, NOANG (LA-DANG). Closely related to Cham. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1955. Work in progress.

CUA (BONG MIEW, BNG MIEU) [CUA] 10,000 to 15,000 (1973 SIL). Nghia Bnh, Quang Nam-Da Nang provinces. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong. Dialects: KOL (KOR, COR, CO, COL, DOT, YOT), TRAW (TRU, DONG). Bible portions 1973.

GELAO (CO LAO, KELAO, KELEO, KEH-LAO, GELO, CHILAO, LAO, ILAO, QUC LAO, CC LAO, THU, THIL) [KKF] 6,700 in Viet Nam (1984 official figure); 6,400 speakers in China from an ethnic population of 437,997 (1990 census); 13,100 in all countries. North, Ha Tuyen Province. Daic, Kadai, Lati-Kelao. Dialects: WHITE GELAO (T DU, SOUTHWESTERN GELAO), RED GELAO (VOA D), GREEN GELAO (HO KI, NORTH CENTRAL GELAO), CAPE DRAPING GELAO (KLAU, QAU, CENTRAL GELAO), MOUNTAIN GELAO (PUYUI, WESTERN GELAO). An official nationality in Viet Nam and China. The Red Gelao are shifting to Mandarin. The three dialect groups of Viet Nam are distinguished by the color of their dress. Sororate. Agriculturalists: rice. Polytheistic. Bible portions 1937.

HALANG (KOYONG) [HAL] 10,000 in Viet Nam; 2,000 to 4,000 in Laos; 12,000 in all countries (1973 SIL). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Close to Salang (Laos) and Jeh (Viet Nam). 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1970-1972.

HALANG DOAN (HALANG DUAN, DUAN, DOAN) [HLD] 2,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 1,000 in Laos (1962 Lafont). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, between the Sedang and the Cua. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan. May be intelligible with Takua, Kayong, Halang Daksut, or Rengao. Survey needed.

HANI (H NH, HAW, UNI, U N, XAUNI, X U N) [HNI] 37,000 in Viet Nam (1993 Johnstone); 500,000 in China (1990); 180,000 in Myanmar (1994); 30,000 in Laos (1994); 747,000 in all countries. Lai Chu, Hong Lin Son provinces in northern Viet Nam. Not in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-ya. An official nationality in Viet Nam and China. Speakers call themselves H Nh. Polytheist, ancestor worship.

HAROI (HRWAY, HROI, HROY, HOI, AROI, BAHNAR CHAM) [HRO] 33,000 (1993 Johnstone). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau.

HMONG DAW (WHITE MEO, MEO KAO, WHITE LUM, MN TRNG, BAI MIAO) [MWW] 165,000 or more in all countries; 60,000 in China (1987); 25,000 to 30,000 in Thailand (1984 OMF); 70,000 in USA (1987 UBS); 10,000 in France. 500,000 Hmong in Viet Nam (1995). Ha Tuyen Province, north Viet Nam. Also in Laos. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua. No significant difference between White and Striped Hmong. NT 1975-1984. Bible portions 1922-1984.

HMONG NJUA (BLUE MEO, GREEN MIAO, TAK MEO, HMONG NJWA, HMONG LENG) [BLU] 1,223,500 or more in all countries; 1,000,000 in China (1982; 100,000 in Laos; 33,000 in Thailand; 10,000 in Myanmar (1987); 70,000 in USA; possibly 2,000 in France; 1,500 in French Guiana. H Tuyen Province, northern Viet Nam. Also in Australia and French Guiana. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Largely intelligible with Hmong Daw. NT 1975-1983. Bible portions 1955-1959.

HRE (DAVAK, DAVACH, MOI DA VACH, MOI, MOI LUY, CHAM-RE, CHOM, TACHOM) [HRE] 100,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nghia Bnh Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang. Dialects: RABAH (TAVA), CREQ (KARE, KRE), HRE. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Closest to Sedang. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1967-1975.

HUNG (CUI) [HNU] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nghe Tinh Province, north, along the Laos border, about 18.4' N, 105' E, north of the Pong 2 language. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Pong 2, Tum, Uy-Lo, Khong Kheng are closely related. Survey needed.

IU MIEN (MIEN, MN, YAO, MYEN, HIGHLAND YAO, DAO, DONG, TRAI, X, DU) [IUM] 300,000 or fewer in Viet Nam (1995 H. Purnell); 34,000 in Thailand; 60,000 or fewer in Laos (1995); 490,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 16,000 to 20,000 in USA (1995 H. Purnell); 2,000 in France; a few in Myanmar (1995); 892,000 in all countries. H Tuyen, Hong Lien Son, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Bac Thi, Lai Chau, Son La, H Son Binh, Vinh Ph, H Bac, Thanh Ha, Quang Ninh provinces. Also in France, Taiwan, Canada. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Dialects: MAN DO, DEO TIEN, CHAM, QUAN CHET, QUAN TRANG. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. The language is the same as in Thailand and Laos. Not all ethnic Yao speak Mien; many speak Chinese. Part of the population figure given for Viet Nam may be for Kim Mun. Polytheist, ancestor worship. NT 1975-1991. Bible portions 1932-1968.

JARAI (DJARAI, GIA-RAI, JORAI, CHO-RAI, CHOR, MTHUR) [JRA] 304,000 (1993 Johnstone). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province. Also in USA. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau. Dialects: PUAN, HODRUNG (HDRUNG), JHUE, ARP, HABAU (HO-BAU), TO-BUAN, SESAN, CHUTY, PLEIKLY, GOLAR. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1974, out of print. Bible portions 1950-1963.

JEH (DIE, YEH, GIE) [JEH] 10,000 in Viet Nam (1973 SIL). Quang Nam-Da Nang and Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Dialects: JEH BRI LA (BRI-LA), JEH MANG RAM. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1967-1978.

KATU (ATTOUAT, ATAOUAT, KADO, CAO, KAO, THAP, TEU, KHAT, TA RIVER VAN KIEU, KOTU, COTU, CATU, HA) [KTV] 30,000 in all countries (1989 SIL); 80,000 together with Kantu (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Quang Nam-Da Nang and Bnh Tri Thien provinces. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Thap. 5% to 15% literate. NT 1978. Bible portions 1969.

KATUA (CA TUA) [KTA] 3,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, around Mang Buk, west of the Kayong language. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, Unclassified.

KAYONG (KAGIUONG, CA GIONG, KATANG) [KXY] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Remote mountains of Cong Tum Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong. Close to Takua and Cua. Mountain slope.

KHANG (KHAANG, TAYHAY, TAY HAY, XA, X KHAO, XA XUA, XA DON, XA DANG, XA HOC, XA AI, XA BUNG, QUANG LAM, HANG, BREN, KSAKAUTENH, PUTENH, POUTENG, TENG, THENG) [KJM] 3,921 (1985 F. Proschan). Scattered through the northwest Tai provinces and in western Nghe Tinh Province of northern Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Dialects: KHANG CLAU, KHANG AI (XA KHAO, XA CAU, SAKAU). An official ethnic community. Related to Puoc and Pong 3 in Laos.

KHAO [XAO] 10,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, near the Ma River, north of Pa Ma. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao. Related to Bit in Laos and China. May be the same as Xa Khao (Khla Phlao, Laha). Survey needed.

KHMER, CENTRAL (CAMBODIAN, KHO ME, CUR CUL, CU THO, VIET GOC MIEN, KHOME KROM) [KMR] 700,000 or more in Viet Nam; 100,000 in Thailand (1993); 5,932,200 in Cambodia (1990); 50,000 or more in France; 50,000 in USA; 10,400 in Laos; 1,000 in China (1993); 7,063,200 in all countries. Hau Giang, Cuu Long, Kien Giang, Minh Hai, Thnh ph H Ch minh, Song B, Tay Ninh provinces, Mekong delta of southwestern Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer. Bible 1954. NT 1929-1993. Bible portions 1899-1933.

KHMU (KMHMU, KHOMU, KHAMU, MUN XEN, XA CAU, KHA CAU, CAM MU) [KJG] 42,853 in Viet Nam (1989 F. Proschan); 500,000 in all countries. Nghe Tinh, Son La, Lai Chau, Hong Lien Son provinces. Also in Laos, Thailand, China, Myanmar, France, USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. Bible portions 1918. Work in progress.

KHUA [XHU] 5,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West central; southeast of Giap Tam. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Related to Bru, Mangkong, Leun. Distinct from Cua. Survey needed.

KIM MUN (MUN, LANTEN, LAN TEN, LANTIN, MAN LAN-TIEN, LOWLAND YAO, COC MUN, JINMEN) [MJI] 200,000 in all countries; 66,000 in China (1993). Also in Laos. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Part of the population figure given for Iu Mien in Viet Nam may be for Kim Mun.

KOHO (COHO, KOHOR) [KPM] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Lam Dng and Thuan Hai provinces. Also in USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre. Dialects: CHIL (KIL), TRING (TRINH), SRE, KALOP, SOP, LAYA, RION, NOP (XRE NOP, TU-LOP), TALA (TO LA), KODU (CO-DON), PRU, LAC (LAT, LACH). An official ethnic community. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1967. Bible portions 1950-1966.

LAHA (X KHAO, KHL PHLAO, KL DONG, KHL DON, KHL DUNG, KHL LIIK, LA HA UNG, LA HA, X CHIEN, X LAY) [LHA] 2,000 (1994 Hong Luong in Edmondson 1994). Northwestern, Ha Tuyen, Son La, and Lao Cay provinces, along the Red and Black rivers. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. Those under 50 seldom speak Laha. They speak Thi and dress like the Tai Dam. An official nationality. They live together with the Thi and Kh#ang. Agriculturalists: wet and dry rice. Survey needed.

LAHU (LOHEI, LAHUNA, LAUNA, LAKU, KAIXIEN, NAMEN, MUSSUH, MUHSO, MUSSO, MUSSAR, MOSO) [LAH] 580,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 411,476 in China (1990); 125,000 in Myanmar (1993); 28,000 in Thailand (1993); 2,000 to 3,000 in Laos (1973). Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Lahu. Dialects: NA (BLACK LAHU, MUSSER DAM), NYI (RED LAHU, MUSSEH DAENG), SHEHLEH. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Distinct from Lahu Shi (Kutsung, Yellow Lahu). Bible 1989. NT 1932-1962. Bible portions 1924-1962.

LAQUA (KA BEO, KA BAO, KA BIAO, PUBIAO, PUPEO, PU PO, PEN TI LOLO, BENDI LOLO) [LAQ] 382 in Viet Nam (1994 Hong Luong in Edmondson 1994); 307 in China (1990 Zhang Junru); 689 in all countries. H Tuyen Province, Viet Nam-Yunnan-Kwangsi border, upper Clear River valley, Dunshi, Pugao, Pula, Pubang, Manong; Ph L and Sung Chang villages, Dng Van District, and Yn Minh and Mo Vac districts, H Giang Province. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. They call themselves 'Ka Beo' or 'Qa Beo'. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Sororate. Traditional religion.

LATI (AKHU, P'U LA, PULA, PHULA, FULA, FOULA, TAI LATI, LACH, LAJI, LIPULIO, LA QUA, Y P, Y PNG, C TE, CU-T) [LBT] 7,863 in Viet Nam (1990 census), including 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (1990 Liang Min), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households; 1,153 speakers in China in 306 households (1990 Liang Min); 9,016 in all countries. H Tuyen Province, mostly west of H Giang in the upper Clear River valley (Riviere Claire) on the China border: Black Lachi at Manyou, Long-Haired Lachi at Manpeng. Daic, Kadai, Lati-Kelao. Dialects: LIPUTI (BLACK LACHI), LIPUPI (LONG-HAIRED LACHI), LIPUTE (BAG LACHI), LIPUTCIO (HAN LACHI), LIPUKE (RED LACHI), LIPULIONGTCO (FLOWERY LACHI). The first two dialects listed are in Viet Nam, the others in China. 'Red', 'Flowery', etc., refer to clothing color or other features of physical appearance. Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam have 80% lexical similarity with Flowery Lachi of China. White Lachi of Viet Nam has 30% to 40% lexical similarity with the others, and should be considered a separate language. Those in Viet Nam retain their language. Related to Gelo. Agriculturalists: wet rice; livestock. Traditional religion.

LATI, WHITE (WHITE LACHI, LIPUP) [LWH] 1,602 in 300 households (1990 Liang Min). H Tuyen Province, northern Viet Nam south of Maguan in China, Manbang and Manmei. Daic, Kadai, Lati-Kelao. 30% to 40% lexical similarity with other Lati. They retain their language. Typology: Tonal.

L (PAI-I, SHUI-PAI-I, LUE, TAI LU, NHUON, DUON) [KHB] 3,000 in Viet Nam (1959); 20,000 in Laos (1993); 78,000 in Thailand (1993); 250,000 to 770,000 in China (1990); 200,000 in Myanmar (198; 551,000 to 1,070,000 in all countries. Lai Chau Province, northern Viet Nam in the Binh Lu area. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. An official nationality in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhist. NT 1933, out of print. Bible portions 1921-1932. Work in progress.

MAA (MAAQ, MA, MAA', CHAUMA, MA NGAN, CHE MA, MA XOP, MA TO, MA KRUNG) [CMA] 30,000 to 40,000 (199. Lam Dong, Dong Nai, and Thuan Hai provinces, spread over a wide area. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre. Sometimes considered a Koho dialect. An official ethnic community. 50% to 75% literate.

MAN CAO LAN (CAO LAN, CAOLAN, SAN CHAY, SAN CHI, MAN CAO-LAN, SN-CHI, MN, CAO LAN-SN CHI) [MLC] 77,000 in Viet Nam (1986); 100,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bac Thi, Quang Ninh, H Bac, Cao Bang, Lang Son, and H Tuyen provinces, northern Viet Nam-China border. Daic, Tai, Central. The official San Chay nationality in Viet Nam. Speakers are said to have come from China in the 19th century. Related to Tu D. May be close to some varieties of Southern Zhuang in China.

MANG (MANG U, X MANG, X , NIENG , CHAMAN, MANBU, BA'E, X L VNG) [MGA] 2,200 in Viet Nam (1989 F. Proschan 1996); 500 in China; 5 in Thailand; 2,700 in all countries. Lai Chau Province, north Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. The linguistic subclassification of Mang is uncertain.

MANGKONG (MANG-KOONG, MAKONG, SO MAKON, MANKOONG, MANG CONG) [XMK] 10,000 in all countries (199. Bnh Tri Thien Province, west central border area between Nguon and Khua. Most in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed.

MAY [MVZ] 1,500 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bnh Tri Thien Province, east central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, east of Phuc Trach, southeast of Arem. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Part of the Cht official ethnic community in Viet Nam, including Arem, Ruc, and Sach. Survey needed.

MNONG, CENTRAL (PNONG, BUDONG, BUDANG) [MNC] 90,000 in all countries (198; 19,000 in Cambodia (1988 govt. figure); 186,000 all Mnong languages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southwest of the Rade, mainly in Song B and western Dac Lac provinces. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Dialects: PRH (PRE), BIAT (BHIT), BU NAR, BU RUNG, DIH BRI (DI-PRI), BU DANG. Mnong is an official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Biat may be a separate language related to Eastern Mnong.

MNONG, EASTERN [MNG] 48,000 (198. Southeast of the Rade in Dac Lac and Lam Dng provinces. Also in USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Eastern Mnong. Dialects: MNONG ROLOM (ROLOM, ROLAM, RLAM, RALAM), MNONG GAR (GAR), MNONG KWANH, CHIL. Biat may be closer to Eastern Mnong than to Central Mnong. Bible portions 1977.

MNONG, SOUTHERN [MNN] 48,000 (198. Mostly in Song B Province south of the Central Mnong and north of the Stieng. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Dialects: BUNONG (NONG, PNONG), PRANG (PO RANG). Ra-Ong, Bu Sre, Bu Dip, and Kuenh are possibly subgroups. Probably the same as Pnong (Phnong) in Cambodia. Survey needed.

MONOM (BONOM, MENAM, MONAM) [MOO] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Eastern Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom.

MUONG [MTQ] 767,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). H Son Bnh, Thanh Ha, Vinh Ph, Hong Lien Son, Son La, and H Nam Ninh provinces, mostly in the mountains of north central Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Dialects: THANG, WANG, MOL, MUAL, MOI 1, BOI BI (MOI BI), AO T (AU T). An official ethnic community. Sach, May, Ruc, Arem, Thavung, Pakatan are related. 50% to 75% literate. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1963.

NGUN [NUO] 2,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central, south of Bai Dinh. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Closest to Muong. Survey needed.

NHANG (NHAANG, NYANG, NIANG, YAI, YAY, GIAI, GIANG, GIY, DANG, DIOI, PAU THIN, P N, PU-NAM, CI CHU, XA CHUNG CH, CHUNG CHA, SA) [NHA] 28,000 in Viet Nam (1986); 100 possibly in France; 5 possibly in USA; 250,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Hong Lien Son, H Tuyen, Lai Chau provinces. Also probably in Laos. Daic, Tai, Northern. An official nationality in Viet Nam. Close to Bouyei. Included under the Zhuang nationality in China; possibly a dialect or alternate name for Southern Zhuang.

NUNG (NONG, BU-NONG, HIGHLAND NUNG, TAI NUNG, TAY, TY NNG) [NUT] 700,000 in Viet Nam (1992 J.A. Edmondson); a few in Laos. Cao Bang, Lang Son, Bac Thi, H Tuyen, H Bac, Hong Lien Son, Quang Ninh, Thnh ph H Ch Minh, Lam Dng provinces. They have mixed with Chinese Nung. In USA (California, Delaware, Iowa, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania), Canada, and Australia. Daic, Tai, Central. Dialects: XUNG, GIANG, NNG AN, NNG PHAN SLNH (NNG FAN SLIHNG), NNG CHO, NNG LI, NNG QY RIN (GUIREN), KHEN LI, NNG INH. Closely related to Ty and Southern Zhuang (Ningming, Longzhou varieties). Different from Chinese Nung (Cantonese) and Tibeto-Burman Nung (Nu). An official nationality in Viet Nam. Dialect continuum with Southern Zhuang in China. They have preserved their language and culture more than the Ty. Dictionary. 50% to 75% literate. Bible portions 1971-1975. Work in progress.

O'DU (O DU, IDUH, 'IDUH, "TAY HAT", HAT, HAAT) [TYH] 200 in Viet Nam (1985 F. Proschan 1996); 194 in Laos (1989 F. Proschan 1996); 400 in both countries. Nghe Tinh Province in northern Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Speakers call themselves 'O Du'.

PACOH (PACO, POKOH, BO RIVER VAN KIEU) [PAC] 15,000 in all countries (1973 SIL). Bnh Tri Thien Province and in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Pacoh-Phuong. Dialect: PAHI (BA-HI). 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1965-1969.

PHU THAI (PUTAI, PHUTAI, PUTHAY, PUTHAI) [PHT] 150,000 in Viet Nam (1993 Johnstone); 128,000 in Laos (1993); 156,000 in Thailand (1993); 300,000 in all countries (1990 A. Diller ANU) to 434,000 total (1993 Johnstone). Northern. Also in Los Angeles, California, USA. Daic, Tai Southwestern, East Central, Lao-Phutai. Part of the Thai official ethnic community in Viet Nam.

PHUNOI (PHU NOI, PUNOI, PHOUNOY, CNG, CONG, XA COONG, XA XAM KHOONG, XA XENG) [PHO] 1,300 in Viet Nam (1989 census); 20,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 32,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Lai Chau Province, Muong Te District, east of Sila, south of Mang. Some in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Phunoi. Dialects: BLACK KHOANY, WHITE KHOANY, MUNG, HWETHOM, KHASKHONG. One of the official ethnic groups in Viet Nam. Called 'Cn^ng' in Viet Nam, 'Phunoi' or 'Phounoy' in Laos. Bisu, Pyen, and Mpi are closely related. Those listed as dialects may be separate languages. "Kha Punoi" is derogatory.

PHUONG (PHUANG, PHUONG CATANG) [PHG] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Quang Nam-Da Nang and Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces, southeast of the Pacoh language. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Pacoh-Phuong. Part of the Katu official ethnic community. Survey needed.

PONG 1 (POONG, TAY PONG, TAYPONG, KHA PONG, KHA PHONG, PHONG) [KPN] 3,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest central, Neun River, southeast of Sam Thong. Also in Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Distinct from Pong 2 and Pong 3 in Laos. May be part of the Tho (Cuoi) official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Survey needed.

PUOC (KHA PUHOC, PUHOC, PUOK, PUA, XINH MUL, XINH-MUN, XIN MUL, SING MUN, KSING MUL) [PUO] 10,890 in Viet Nam (1989 F. Proschan); 2,164 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 13,000 in all countries. Lai Chau and Son La provinces in northern Viet Nam, along the Laos border. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Related to Khang and Pong 3.

RADE (RHADE, RADAY, RDE, E-DE, EDEH, DE) [RAD] 120,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Dac Lac and part of Ph Khnh provinces, centered around Banmethuot. Also USA, possibly also Cambodia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau. Dialects: BIH, NDHUR (MDHUR), ADHAM (A-DHAM), BLO, KODRAO (KDRAO), KRUNG 1, RDE KPA (KPA). An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Bih (1,000) may be a separate language. The Krung 1 dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Krung 2, in Cambodia. Other names of dialects or ethnic groups: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1964. Bible portions 1937-1966.

RENGAO (RO-NGAO) [REN] 15,000 (1973 SIL). Cong Tum Province, from northwest of Dak To to southeast of Kontum city between Sedang and Bahnar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Rengao. Dialects: WESTERN RENGAO, SEDANG-RENGAO, BAHNAR-RENGAO. It may be intelligible with Halang Doan. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1977.

ROGLAI, CACGIA (RA-GLAI) [ROC] 2,000 (1973 SIL). 86,000 all Roglai in Viet Nam (1993 Johnstone). Thuan Hai Province, on the coast northeast of Phan Rang. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai. It is considerably different from other Roglai dialects.

ROGLAI, NORTHERN (RADLAI, ADLAI, RAYGLAY, RA-GLAI, RANG GLAI, NOANG, LA-OANG) [ROG] 25,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Thuan Hai and Ph Khnh provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang, and some near Dalat. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai. Roglai is an official ethnic community. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1966-1973.

ROGLAI, SOUTHERN (RAI) [RGS] 20,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Thuan Hai Province, southern Viet Nam. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai. Dialect: RAI. Roglai is an official ethnic community. Closely related to Chru and Northern Roglai. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

ROMAM [ROH] Small. On the Viet Nam-Cambodian border. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. An official ethnic community.

RUC [RUL] 500 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bnh Tri Thien Province, Laos border area, Chiang River, south of May, north of Sach. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Part of the Chut official ethnic community together with Arem, May, and Sach. Survey needed.

SACH [SCB] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bnh Tri Thien Province, near the Laos border, Chiang River, south of Ruc, northwest of Nguon. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Part of the Chut official ethnic community, together with Arem, May, and Ruc. Ma Ling, Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Chcu, Tac-cui, U-mo, X L Vng may be dialects or related names in Viet Nam. Survey needed.

SEDANG (HADANG, HDANG, HOTEANG, ROTEANG, ROTEA, HOTEA, XODANG, XA DANG, CADONG, TANG, KMRANG) [SED] 40,000 in Viet Nam (1973 SIL); 400 or more in Attepoe Province, Laos (1992). Cong Tum Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang. Dialects: CENTRAL SEDANG, GREATER SEDANG, DAK SUT SEDANG, KOTUA SEDANG, KON HRING SEDANG. Closest to Hre. SaKau or Xa Cau may be an alternate name. 25% to 50% literate.

SILA [SLT] (19,000 in Laos; 1993). C D X, Kh P, Lai Chau Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam.

STIENG (XTIENG, XA-DIENG, BUDP, RANGAH) [STI] 48,000 in Viet Nam (1973 SIL); 3,600 in Cambodia (1993 Johnstone); 70,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Song B an Tay Ninh provinces. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau. Dialects: BU LO, BU DEH. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1971.

TAI DAENG (RED TAI, TAI ROUGE, THAI DO, THAI DANG, TAI DENG, DAENG, TY-MC-CHU, MC-CHU) [TYR] 100,000 in Viet Nam (1990 A. Diller); 25,000 in Laos (1991 CMA); 125,000 in all countries. North central Viet Nam in the area of Thanh Hoa Province, south of Sam Nuea. A few in southern Viet Nam; Chiang Rai, Thailand; and USA. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Part of the Thai official nationality in Viet Nam. Speakers in Viet Nam tend to identify with Tai Dam, and deny they are 'Red Tai'. Survey needed.

TAI DAM (TAI NOIR, THI DEN, TY-DAM, BLACK TAI, TAI DO) [BLT] 500,000 or more in Viet Nam (1990 A. Diller); 20,000 in Thailand (1991 J. Matisoff); 3,000 in USA; 1,000 to 1,500 in France; 10,000 in China (1995); 534,000 or more in all countries. Northern Viet Nam along the Red and Black rivers. Some moved south and are settled in Tung Nghia (Tuyenduc), Tho Thanh (Darlac), Pleiku, and elsewhere. Also in Laos; Jinping County, Yunnan, China; Sydney, Australia. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Dialect: TY MU''I (TAI MUEAI, MEUAY). It is part of the Thai official nationality in Viet Nam (760,000 in 1984; official figure), which also includes Tai Kao and Tai Daeng. Officially included under Dai in China. Close to Song. Related to Tay Tac of northern Viet Nam. 50% to 75% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1982-1993. Work in progress.

TAI DN (TAI DN, TAI BLANC, THI TRNG, TAI LAI, TAI KAO, TY KHAO, WHITE TAI) [TWH] 190,000 in Viet Nam (1984 official figure); 10,000 in China (1995); 400,000 in all countries (1990 A. Diller ANU). North Viet Nam along the Red and Black rivers and in Laos. Some are settled in southern Viet Nam, mainly in Tung Nghia (Tuyen Duc). Also in Jinping County, Yunnan, China and a few in USA. More in France than in USA. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Not intelligible with Tai Dam. Those who have had prolonged contact with Tai Dam have become bilingual in it. Many have not had that contact. Lao has influenced the speech of some Tai Dn speakers. They have a distinctive writing system and different customs from the Tai Dam. Tai Dn have strong ethnic pride. Part of the Thai official nationality in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhism. Bible portions 1969.

TAI HANG TONG (HNG TONG, TY MUNG) [THC] Small. Northern Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Part of the Thi official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam, Pu Thay, Tay Thanh, and Tho Da Bac. Survey needed.

TAI MAN THANH (TY THANH, MAN THANH) [TMM] Small. Northern Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Part of the Thi official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam, Hang Tong, Pu Thay, and Tho Da Bac. Survey needed.

TAKUA (QUANG TIN KATU, LANGYA) [TKZ] 5,000 to 10,000 (1973 SIL). Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Takua. Closest to Cua and Kayong.

TA'OIH, UPPER (TA-OY, T-OI, TAU OI, TA HOI, TOI-OI, KANTUA) [TTH] 30,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Dng Nai Province, east of A Tuc. Also in Laos and USA: Stockton, California. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ta-Oy-Tong. Dialects: PASOOM, KAMUAN', PALEE'N, LEEM, HA'AANG (SA'ANG). An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Linguistic analysis was begun. Not intelligible with Lower Ta'oih until speakers have had at least 2 weeks' contact. 70% monolingual. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress.

TY ("TH", THU LAO, T'O, TAI THO, NGAN, PHEN, PA DI) [THO] 1,000,000 in Viet Nam (1992 J.A. Edmondson). Cao Bng, Lang Son, H Giang, Tuye~n Quang, Bc Thi, Hong Lien Son, Quang Ninh, H Bac, and Lam Dng provinces, central and northeastern Viet Nam near the China border. Some moved south and settled in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Also possibly in Laos, quite a few in USA, many in France. Daic, Tai, Central. Dialects: CENTRAL TY, EASTERN TY, SOUTHERN TY, NORTHERN TY. "Tho" is a derogatory name. An official nationality in Viet Nam. High degree of bilingualism and acculturation in Vietnamese. Dialect continuum to Southern Zhuang in China. Closely related to Nung. Dictionaries. 50% to 75% literate. Bible portions 1938-1963.

TAY BOI (TAY BOY, ANNAMITE FRENCH, VIETNAMESE PIDGIN FRENCH) [TAS] Used in the major ports of French Indo-China. Pidgin, French based. Developed beginning in 1862. Influences from Vietnamese, French, English, Javanese, and Portuguese. It was used between French and Vietnamese until 1954, and in lower levels of administration, in the military, and by police. No longer spoken (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Extinct.

TAY JO (TAY-JO) [TYJ] Small. Northern Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. It may be the same as Tay Yo of Khamouan Province, Laos. Survey needed.

THO [TOU] 51,000 (1989 census). Western Nghe An and Thanh Hoa provinces, highland areas. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Unclassified. An official ethnic community. Associated culturally with other principal local ethnonyms Keo, Mon, Cuoi, Ho, Dan, Lai-Ly Ha, and Tay Poong. Survey needed.

TODRAH (TODR, DIDRAH, DIDRA, PODRA, MODRA, KODRA) [TDR] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, northeast of Kontum city from Kon Hring to Kon Braih. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom. Didra may be a separate language.

TRIENG (STRIENG, GIE-TRIENG, TAREH, TRENG, TA-RIENG, TALIENG, DGIH, GIANG RAY, PIN) [STG] 30,000 or fewer (1991 SIL). Quang Nam-Da Nang and Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces, northwest of Dak Rotah. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Unclassified. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. May be related to Jeh or Talieng in Laos.

TS'N-LAO [TSL] Lai Chau Province, northwestern Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Central. Possibly the same as the Lao official ethnic community, with associated names Lao Boc and Lao Noi. Survey needed.

VIETNAMESE (KINH, GIN, JING, CHING, VIET, ANNAMESE) [VIE] 65,051,000 in Viet Nam, 86.7% of the population (1993); 859,000 in USA (1993); 600,000 to 1,000,000 in Cambodia; 60,000 in Germany; 10,000 in France (1975); 6,000 in China (1990); 330 in Martinique; 5,000 in New Caledonia (1984); 76,000 in Laos (1993); 770 in Vanuatu (1993); 8,000 in Netherlands; 99,000 in Norway; 22,000 in United Kingdom; 60,000 in Canada; 35,000 in Australia; 66,897,000 in all countries. The entire country. Also in Thailand, Philippines, Senegal, Cte d'Ivoire, Finland. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Dialects: NORTHERN VIETNAMESE (TONKINESE, HANOI), CENTRAL VIETNAMESE (HUE), SOUTHERN VIETNAMESE. 65% literacy rate. Roman alphabet. People are called 'Kinh'. National language. Typology: SVO. Braille code available. Bible 1916-1994. NT 1914-1993. Bible portions 1890-1989.


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